STOP CASSINI Newsletter #231 -- November 23rd, 1999

Copyright (c) 1999

STOP CASSINI Newsletters Index

To: Subscribers, government officials, members of the press
From: Russell David Hoffman, (trying not to be a silent observer)
Re: Y2K dangers recognized by some; ignored by others: STOP CASSINI  #231
Date: November 23rd, 1999

This issue's subjects:

(1) Whooops! We almost all died!  GAME OVER.  Try again?:


Date: Mon, 22 Nov 1999 12:22:39 -0800
From: (Susan Gordon)

Here is an announcement for the launch of the USA de-alerting campaign.

Please spread far and wide on e-mail lists, fax, or any other way to get maximum participation in the launch.

On January 25, 1995, millions of people were minutes away from being
incinerated by a mistaken nuclear weapons launch. Russian radar had detected a
US-Norwegian rocket that looked like a US Trident nuclear missile. The routine
notice that it was a weather rocket was lost in the bureaucracy. The black
suitcase containing Russian nuclear launch codes was already with President
Yeltsin when he was informed that it was a mistaken alert.

There have been many false alerts on the US side as well, including one in
which a nuclear warfare training tape being run on the command center computer
was mistaken for the real thing.

The Cold War officially ended after the Soviet Union fell apart eight years
ago. Yet today, the people of the United States and Russia still face the risk
of being evaporated in an accidental nuclear war. That risk is increasing
because of deteriorating infrastructure and the poor state of the Russian

There is something that can be done to greatly reduce this risk: take nuclear
weapons off of hair trigger alert. De-alerting nuclear weapons does not require
a change in the size of the US or Russian arsenals. Nor are lengthy arms
reduction negotiations or legislative debates needed.  De-alerting simply
requires a determination by national leaders to increase nuclear safety and
abandon confrontational nuclear postures.

On December 9, 1999, a major national effort to de-alert nuclear weapons, the
"Back from the Brink Campaign," will be launched. That morning, a new video
made by the Center for Defense Information, discussing nuclear dangers and how
de-alerting can reduce them, will be released at the National Press Club in
Washington, D.C. Speakers will include: Bruce Blair, one of the world's
foremost authorities on the subject and a MacArthur Fellow; former Senator Dale
Bumpers, now head of the Center for Defense Information; Beatrice Brailsford,
Program Director of the Snake River Alliance, a statewide peace and
environmental group in Idaho, and Arjun Makhijani, President of the Institute
for Energy and Environmental Research in Takoma Park, Maryland.

The heart of the campaign will be outside Washington, DC.  That's where the
pressure to persuade President Clinton as well as the House and Senate to
de-alert nuclear weapons must come from.

You can participate in the launch of the Back from the Brink Campaign by
showing the video at a house party or on your local cable access channel. Free
copies of the Back from the Brink Campaign video are available.  To get one,
send an e-mail to or write the temporary campaign office at
310 E. Center, Suite 205, Pocatello, Idaho 83201.  After December 1, 1999, you
can call our toll free number at 1-877-55BESAFE.

You can also arrange a news briefing in your community around the showing of
the video. The campaign can send you sample press materials and other
information in a packet that you can use and distribute to local media.

The website of the campaign is at
Arjun Makhijani
President, Institute for Energy and Environmental Research
6935 Laurel Ave., Suite 204
Takoma Park, Maryland 20912, U.S.A.
Phone 301-270-5500
Fax: 301-270-3029
web page:

Susan Gordon, Director
Alliance for Nuclear Accountability
1914 N 34th, Suite #407, Seattle, WA 98103
ph 206-547-3175  fax 206-547-7158
ANA is a national alliance of organizations working to address
issues of nuclear weapons production and waste clean-up.


(2) Euro lobbyists back Y2K resolution:


X-Sender: (Unverified)
Date: Tue, 23 Nov 1999 14:47:21 +1000
From: FoE Sydney - Nuclear Campaign <>
 Rls and letter)
Cc:,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, "Bernd Frieboese" <>,,,,

John Hallam
Friends of the Earth Sydney,
17 Lord street, Newtown, NSW, Australia,
Fax(61)(2)9517-3902 ph (61)(2)9517-3903



Lobbyists from Europe, Australia and the US have written to Senator Robert
Bennett (R-Utah) to say 'you got it wrong' over the resolution carried
Thursday by the European Parliament, asking for nuclear weapons to be taken
off hairtrigger alert over the Y2K rollover.

Senator Bennett had blasted the resolution, as calling for the shutdown of
nuclear early warning systems, a step that would have been almost suicidal.

In fact, it was precisely because of the danger that the Y2K 'bug' might
either shutdown essential warning systems altogether or that it might
produce false alerts, especially in the Russian system on which very little
work has been done, that the European Parliament has called for nuclear
weapons to be placed in a configuration in which they cannot be immediately
fired. This is known as 'de-alerting'.

At present, some 5,600 warheads in land- based silos, (2000 in the US and
3,600 in Russia) are on permanent 24 hour 'hair-trigger' alert, able to be
launched within minutes.

The UK has changed the 'notice to fire' of its strategic nuclear forces
from minutes to days. The European Parliamentary Resolution simply calls on
the US and Russia to follow suit.

According to one of the coordinators of the lobby that bought about the
Europarliament resolution,
"There is no way the EP resolution can be interpreted as saying that
warning systems should be shut down and no-one in their right mind would
ever vote for that. A lot of quite conservative groups voted for this
resolution. They did so because taking nuclear weapons off hairtrigger
alert over the Y2K rollover period is so obviously a sensible and
responsible idea. We call on Senator Bennett to recognize that he has got
the Europarliamentary resolution completely wrong, and to do the
responsible thing, namely to press for US weapons to be taken off alert.

De-Alerting nuclear weapons has been recommended by the 1996 Canberra
Commission, by the Tokyo Forum, by the Markey resolution (H.Con.Res.177),
by two Australian Senate resolutions, by two recent resolutions of the
United Nations General Assembly and now by the European Parliament.

Contact: John Hallam 61-2-9517-3903, h61-2-9810-2598


SENATOR CHRIS DODD, 202-224-1083
PAT COX MEP, 33-3-8817-9363
BROK T. ELMAR, 33-3-8817-9323
MAJ-BRITT THEORIN MEP, 33-3-8817-9661


Dear Senator Bob Bennett,

I and my undersigned colleagues are writing both as the initiator and
coordinator of the letter on de- alerting nuclear weapons systems over the
Y2K rollover, now signed by over 460 organizations planet-wide, (which has
been faxed to you a number of times now), and as  those who contributed to
first drafts of the text of the European Parliaments resolution on Y2K and
the civil and military sectors, and who lobbied for that resolution to be
carried. The resolution as it now stands is of course entirely the product
of the Parliament itself.

As such I and my colleagues are in a position to state that the text of the
resolution, which we hereby send you, in no way resembles a demand or
recommendation to shut down nuclear early warning systems.
Nor can the recent resolution of the European Parliament be reasonably
interpreted as such.

Such a shutdown would indeed be disastrous. Nobody would ever suggest that
such a thing should be done, and it is indeed the opposite of what the
European Parliament has actually suggested.

We note that you say in your statement that 'the real danger lies in the
generation of inaccurate information that could result in false alarms. Or
worse still, the lack of any information at all'  This is perfectly true.

Indeed, it is precisely because there is widespread concern over the
possibility that Y2K induced (or other) computer errors may either shut
down or degrade monitoring and early warning systems, that the European
Parliament has very responsibly suggested that nuclear weapons systems be
de-alerted, that is, removed from hairtrigger alert, so that instantaneous
retaliation based on faulty data is no longer a possibility.  The
resolution passed by the European Parliament is not dissimilar from the
Markey resolution (H.Con.Res 177) and from two resolutions carried by the
Australian Senate. None of these initiatives call for the shutdown of
warning systems.

Taking nuclear weapons off hairtrigger alert has been advocated by the
Canberra Commission in 1996 (A body which included General Lee Butler
amongst others), by the subsequent Tokyo Forum, and by a number of
resolutions in the United Nations General Assembly including the New Agenda
Resolution last year and again this year, and the resolution introduced by
India, 'Reducing Nuclear Dangers'.  These resolutions have been adopted by
large, indeed overwhelming, majorities.

They have been so adopted because they are in fact so clearly sensible, and
indeed essential, measures.

In no way does this resolution reduce the crucial importance of
establishing joint monitoring facilities such as the Y2K strategic
stability center in Colorado and the planned strategic stability center in

However, we note that the Colorado center is not scheduled to enter
operation until 27 December. A four day delay will render it useless. We
also note the problems with Y2K vulnerabilities in the hotlines.

The Colorado  Y2K Strategic Stability Center is an essential measure to
ensure that the world does not experience, in your own words
'unintended deadly consequences'.

So too is the removal of nuclear weapons from hairtrigger alert. The
creation of strategic stability centers, essential as that is, does not
completely eliminate the risk, though it reduces it, that the world may
experience 'unintended deadly consequences' as a result of the failure of
early warning systems, or the creation of false alarms in those systems by
Y2K related computer problems.

In fact, the UK has already done the necessary minimum by moving the
'notice to fire' of its nuclear weapon systems from minutes to days.

This is precisely what the resolution carried by the European Parliament
(and carried by an overwhelming majority) seeks to do, and this is
precisely what it does.  To suggest that it asks for the shutdown of early
warning systems is as far from both the letter and the spirit of that
resolution as it is possible to be.

I can only assume that you have not had access to the resolution itself and
have relied on inaccurate reports by Yahoo, repeating Reuters, as to its
content. This being the case, I trust that you will recognize your error
and issue a retraction immediately.

I append text of the resolution itself. As you can see it in no way
suggests the shutdown of warning systems.

Yours Sincerely,

John Hallam, Nuclear Campaigner, Friends of the Earth Sydney Australia,
Commander Robert D. Green, Royal Navy (Retd.), Chair, World Court Project, UK,
Solange Fernex, Chair, Womens International League for Peace and Freedom,
Paul Swann, World Atomic Safety Holiday (Y2K-WASH), London,
Ak Malten, Global Antinuclear Alliance, The Hague, Netherlands,

Alan F. Philips, MD, Physicians for Global Survival, Canada,
William F. Santlemann, Boston Committee to De-Alert Nuclear Weapons,
Ellen Thomas, Proposition-One Committee, Washington, DC.,
Bill Smirnow, Nuclear-Free New York/Y2K WASH,
Mary Beth Branagan/Jim Heddle, US World Atomic Safety Holiday (Y2K-WASH)


(3) Berkeley (California) City Council Y2K WASH resolution:


Date: Tue, 23 Nov 1999 07:24:14 +0000
From: Paul Swann <>
Subject: [y2k-nuclear] Berkeley City Council Y2K WASH resolution

Date: Mon, 22 Nov 1999 20:34:48 -0800
To: "civicprep" <>
From: Tom Atlee <>
Subject: [uk-y2k-action] Berkeley City Council Y2K WASH resolution

Since the European Parliament just passed their Y2K WASH resolution,
Berkeley City Councilmember Kriss Worthington is sponsoring one for
Berkeley. Y2K activists who don't live in Berkeley might want to try
getting such a resolution on their council's agenda, too.  [Thanks to (Barbara George) for the alert.] -- Tom

Kriss Worthington
Councilmember, City of Berkeley District 7
1900 Addison Street, Second Floor     Berkeley, CA 94704
PHONE 510-644-6398     FAX 510-644-4822
November 23, 1999

To:             Honorable Mayor and Members of the City Council
From:           Councilmember Kriss Worthington


That the Berkeley City Council sends letters in support of the World Atomic
Safety Holiday (Y2K WASH) to President Clinton, the Senate Y2K Committee,
Congresswoman Barbara Lee, US Senator Dianne Feinstein, and US Senator
Barbara Boxer and ask our leaders to do the following:

1) Temporarily shut down all nuclear reactors and other nuclear
installations (such as waste and processing facilities) during Rollover
weekend and bring them back online after January 1, 2000 only when they are
fully tested and verified Y2K compliant and the stability of the
electricity grid has been re-established;
2) Take nuclear weapons off hair-trigger alert and remove warheads from
delivery systems;
3) Provide reliable and redundant backup generators with at least 60 days
fuel supply in every nuclear installation (including waste storage pools),
to keep them stable and under control;
4) Suspend transport of all nuclear materials until the "inevitable" Y2K
disruptions are over;
5) Make certain that emergency procedures are in place to inform and
protect the public in every community with nuclear facilities;
6) Compensate the staff of nuclear facilities for lost overtime or wages
and extra hazardous conditions.

The six provisions of the World Atomic Safety Holiday need the support of
our responsible National and State leaders.


The accident at the nuclear processing plant in Tokaimura, Japan this
October, is a reminder of the awesome destructive power of radioactive
technology. It could foreshadow nuclear accidents at the turn of the
century as a result of the "Y2K" glitch that misreads the year 2000-unless
we act now to prevent catastrophe.

A Y2K test in February, 1999 at the Peachbottom reactor in Pennsylvania
caused a day-long crash of the plant's primary and backup computers. With
blank screens, operators could not view conditions inside the reactor. Was
this an ominous preview of conditions all over the world after New Years
2000? Bad data, human error and lax regulations triggered disasters at
Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Tokaimura.

Nuclear power plants' cooling systems need constant power. . . But
government reports admit that Y2K-related electricity grid failures are a
possibility, especially in rural areas. Most U.S. reactors have two diesel
generators to provide backup power, but their reliability record is poor:
48% reported problems since January 1999-and they stock only seven days'

Many U.S. spent (used) fuel pools have no backup generators Spent fuel
pools next to reactors contain up to 3-5 times more radioactive fuel than
reactors. The fuel gradually cools, but refueling scheduled by 22 reactors
this fall will add intensely hot fuel rods to their storage pools. Without
power for cooling pumps, these pools could boil within 24 hours, and soon
melt down.

The bug's in the bomb, too The British American Security Information
Council reports the possibility that the nuclear weapons states "will
experience faulty or blocked communications, erroneous early-warning
readings, [and] blacked-out computer screens" from Y2K, resulting in
explosions or accidental launch of nuclear missiles.

Tell the government to shut them down.  Y2K WASH believes public pressure
can persuade national governments, the NRC and the nuclear industry to be
prudent and responsible, rather than gamble with disaster. The health of
everyone in the Northern Hemisphere (where most of the reactors and weapons
are located) is at stake.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is not protecting the public.
Congress' General Accounting Office (GAO) says: "NRC's not
define, for either a licensee or the public, the conditions necessary for a
plant's safety" in Y2K. The NRC allowed the industry to self-report
readiness, with no independent verification-and plans to suspend nuclear
safety requirements for the New Year in order to keep reactors running!

Nuclear power is not needed at New Year's Electricity use is down nearly
50% in winter, so there will be plenty without the 19% that is nuclear. Yet
the NRC claims that health and safety is served by nuclear plants
generating electricity-whether or not their computers are malfunctioning.
They should shut down to protect the public, like other hazardous

This background information was provided from Y2K World Atomic Safety
Holiday at



Councilmember Kriss Worthington  644-6398.

[Councilmember Worthington attached the European Parliament resolution
here, which was already sent to you earlier, so I won't repeat it.]
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Tom Atlee  *  The Co-Intelligence Institute  *  Eugene, OR


(4) D.U. Update: US says they "lost count" of uranium shells:


Date: Mon, 22 Nov 1999 09:33:37 EST
Subject: Depleted Uranium

US 'lost count of uranium shells fired in Kosovo'

By Robert Fisk in Pristina

22 November 1999

American aircraft used so much depleted uranium ammunition during the Nato
bombardment of Serbia that US officials are now claiming - to the disbelief
of European bomb disposal officers - that they have no idea how many
locations may be contaminated by the radioactive dust left behind by their

British and other ordnance officers ordered to defuse live ammunition in
Kosovo have been fobbed off by the US military with "security" objections -
and then with statements that no record was kept of depleted uranium (DU)
munitions used in the Kosovo war.

A growing number of doctors and scientists suspect that an explosion of
cancers in southern Iraq is caused by the US use of depleted uranium tank and
aircraft munition warheads during the 1991 Gulf War. British and American
doctors have suggested that it may also be a cause of the "Gulf War
syndrome", which has caused the death of up to 400 veterans. Despite these
fears, Nato this summer refused to assist a UN team investigating the use of
depleted uranium munitions in Kosovo.

But information given to The Independent by European military sources in
Kosovo demonstrates just why Nato should be so reluctant to tell the truth
about the anti-armour ammunition - a waste product of the nuclear industry
which burns on impact and releases toxic and radioactive material when it
explodes. For it transpires that DU was used by A-10 "tankbuster" aircraft
for more than a month in at least 40 locations in Kosovo, many of them "fake"
military targets set up by the Serbs to lure pilots away from their tanks and
artillery positions.

More tragically, A-10 aircraft used DU ammunition in two attacks against
Kosovo Albanian refugees, the first on 14 April on the main road between
Djakovica and Prizren. Hundreds of civilians were wounded in these attacks,
carried out when Nato pilots - flying at more than 15,000 feet to avoid any
injury to themselves - bombed refugee columns in the belief that they were
military convoys.

The British Ministry of Defence admits that "ingestion" of DU dust at the
time of the explosion "could present a health risk". But Nato has made no
attempt to trace the Albanian survivors of these attacks or check their

Nor have K-For troops in southern Kosovo been informed that A-10 aircraft
used DU-penetrator ammunition on targets around a road at Gradis - west of
Prizren - and on a bridge east of Djakovica. Italian K-For troops now manning
a checkpoint only a few feet from the craters of a Nato DU bombing at
Bistrazin have no idea that depleted uranium dust was scattered over the
ground around them seven months ago. Nato sources in Kosovo say that DU was
also used in the warheads of some Cruise missiles fired at hardened silos and
bunkers around main Serbian towns and cities.

Yugoslav officials say they have no record of depleted uranium in Kosovo
because of their army's hurried withdrawal in June - but claim that DU
ammunition was used by Nato in areas around Vranje, Bujanovac, Ostojnik
mountain and on the Montenegran peninsula of Lustice.

"We've asked the Americans lots of time where they used this stuff," a
British ordnance officer told me.

"First - you know the Americans - they said they couldn't tell us for
'security reasons'. Then they said that their A-10s used DU and fired the
ammunition whenever they came across Serb armour. They said that because
these were 'targets of opportunity', they kept no record of the location or
dates of firing.

"I give three pieces of advice to my men if they think they are near DU
munition explosions: stay away, stay away and stay away."

The same officer said he had found the remains of only 13 Serb tanks in
Kosovo - precisely the same figure for destroyed tanks given by the Serbs
after the war and 83 tanks fewer than General Wesley Clark, the supreme Nato
commander, claimed his aircraft had destroyed.

But Nato pilots were fooled by wooden models of tanks and armour into
attacking hundreds of other locations.

In a rare interview in the Belgrade press this month, Colonel Dr Milan
Misovic, a specialist in radioactive protection in the Belgrade military
medical school, claimed that the consequences of DU use by Nato may be small
on the present generation but that "we'll have to check everything for the
next 100 years".


(5) Boldly forth into Y2K we go, heads stuck ever-deeper into the sand:


At 02:17 PM 11/23/99 +0100, Enrique Baron Crespo wrote:


Re: The world has had enough: STOP CASSINI #228 November 19th, 1999
You are kindly requested to DELETE MY NAME FROM YOUR MAILING LIST FORTHWITH.  Thank you.


----- MY RESPONSE: -----

Dear Sir:

Boldly forth into Y2K you go, kindly asking to have your head left firmly stuck in the sand?  Or have I missed something?  WIthout an explanation, I must assume the worst for you and about you.  I'm sorry that what is shown below is your first email to me, and this is my first personal one to you.  With luck, we'll see better days, but will they have to wait until after you've been voted out of office?  I hope not.


Russell Hoffman
Founder and Editor
STOP CASSINI newsletter

----- END OF MY RESPONSE -----

Another EP member to "unsubscribe" recently was:
"Marianne Eriksson" <>

These people are not, however, actually STOP CASSINI subscribers at all, since they are elected officials who have been sent the newsletter for informational purposes to stop their complicity to a global genocide. -- rdh

(6) Tell Clinton how you feel -- Official government contact points:

To contact the top government officials:

President Bill Clinton
White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20500
Phone -- (202) 456-1111   Fax -- (202) 456-2461
e-mail --

Vice President Albert Gore
White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Ave.,
N.W.,Washington, D.C. 20500
Phone -- (202) 456-1414   Fax -- (202) 456-2461
e-mail --

Secretary William Cohen
1000 Defense
The Pentagon
Washington D.C. 20301
Phone -- (703) 695-6352   Fax -- (703) 695-1149

Secretary Bill Richardson
Department of Energy (DoE)
1000 Independence Avenue SW
Washington D.C. 20585
Phone -- (202) 586-6210   Fax -- (202) 586-4403

To learn about the absurd excuses NASA used to launch Cassini and its 72.3 pounds of plutonium in 1997, ask them for the 1995 Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, and all subsequent documentation.  At the same time, be sure to ask them for ANY and ALL documentation available on future uses of plutonium in space, including MILITARY, CIVILIAN, or "OTHER" (just in case they make a new category somehow!).  To get this information, contact:

Cassini Public Information
     Jet Propulsion Laboratory
     4800 Oak Grove Drive
     Pasadena CA 91109
     (818) 354-5011 or (818) 354-6478
Here's NASA's "comments" email address:

Daniel Goldin  is the head of NASA.  Here's his email address:

Here's the NASA URL to find additional addresses to submit written questions to:


NASA should never have been allowed to launch monstrosities like Cassini and Galileo, but the next breed -- such as Europa Orbiter and Pluto-Kuiper Express are not much better and the policy is being set for greatly increased rates of missions!  The danger continues!  To complain to NASA about their future nuclear space probes, here are two addresses you can use:

For Europa Orbiter:
"Europa Orbiter comments" < >

For Pluto-Kuiper Express:
"Pluto-Kuiper Express comments" <>

Be sure to "cc" the president and VP and your senators and congresspeople, too.

Always include your full name and postal address in all correspondence to any Government official of any country, because otherwise they will throw it out unread, or hand it directly to their police force to try to identify the author.  (Thus, nothing good will come of it.)  Also, ALWAYS include a personal message of some sort, indicating YOUR OWN VIEWS, even if you include a lot of material written by other people (me, for instance).

(7) Newsletter subscription information:

Thanks for reading! Welcome new subscribers!

Home page of our STOP CASSINI movement: (Beware of imitations!)

To subscribe, simply email the editor at and state:
Please include a personal message of any
length and subject matter. Thank you!

To unsubscribe email me and say

Published by Russell D. Hoffman electronically.
Written in the United States of America.
This newsletter is free and is not distributed for profit.
The opinions expressed are those of the individual authors.
Please distribute these newsletters EVERYWHERE!

"There can be no democracy without truth, no justice without mercy, and no nuclear dispersals without ill consequences."

(8) Newsletter Authorship notes and additional URLs:


Many of the issues presented by Russell Hoffman in this letter are based on conversations with Dr. John W. Gofman (who isolated the first working quantities of plutonium), the late Dr. Karl Z. Morgan (who was known as the "father of health physics"), Dr. Ernest Sternglass (a noted epidemiologist who has done statistical studies about LLR), Dr. Jay Gould (ditto), Dr. Horst Poehler, Dr. Helen Caldicott, Dr. Ross Wilcock and dozens of activists, as well as many others on both sides of the nuclear debates, including ex military nuke expert Jack Shannon (responsible for the design of the D2G Navy reactor, the most widely used reactor in the U. S. navy), award-winning investigative reporter Karl Grossman, ecologist and human rights advocate Pamela Blockey-O'Brien, etc. Also, I've read a few dozen books on the various subjects. And scads of government documents purporting to explain how something so dangerous can be safe. Professionally, my pump training software is used throughout the pump industry and even in some nuclear power plants around the world to train their staff about mechanical pumps. Any errors herein are regrettably my own, but I believe it would take an extremely unlikely preponderance of errors to invalidate my basic position on these issues.

Russell D. Hoffman, Carlsbad, California, Peace Activist, Environmentalist, High Tech Guru:

Hoffman's Y2K Preparedness Information:

Learn about The Effects of Nuclear War here:

** Russell D. Hoffman, Owner and Chief Programmer
** Carlsbad CA
** Visit the world's most eclectic web site:

Next issue (#232)
Previous issue (#230)



This article has been presented on the World Wide Web by:

The Animated Software Company
Mail to:
First placed online November 23rd, 1999.
Last modified November 30th, 1999.
Webwiz: Russell D. Hoffman
Copyright (c) Russell D. Hoffman