STOP CASSINI Newsletter #164 -- August 4th, 1999

Copyright (c) 1999

STOP CASSINI Newsletters Index

To: Subscribers, Press, Government Officials

Subject: Hiroshima: 54 years of pain: STOP CASSINI #164

Date: August 6th, 1999

Time Frame: Cassini is scheduled to do the flyby of Earth August 18th, 1999 (August 17th in the USA) near Africa.

Today's Subjects:

(1) August 6th: Hiroshima Day

Today is the anniversary of the Hiroshima bombing. Many people have written fine documents to remember the event. Here's a selection of those documents that crossed our desk in the past day or two.

Most years, we add a statement about the fact that had we not dropped "the bomb" (twice) an invasion might have cost everyone on both sides far more lives, etc. etc. but this time we won't mention it here. Rather, we want to emphasize the indisputable fact that changes have NOT been made which will prevent another Hiroshima (or worse, since those were small bombs by today's standards). Y2K might set off hundreds of these torturous devices -- who knows? And who wants to wait around to find out?

We want to emphasize that proper epidemiological studies were NOT done on the Hiroshima victims! All such studies were barely even started until 5 years after the bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

About six weeks after the bombs were dropped, a U. S. Government research team was set up near Hiroshima. They began what were described as systematic estimates of early and delayed health effects. Simultaneously, Allied HQ released a press code restricting references to the A-bomb in speech, reporting, and publication. Later, the Allied Economic and Scientific Bureau told the Japanese that publication of surveys and stories by them about the bombs would require permission from HQ and publication of A-bomb data was prohibited. This ban was not lifted until April 28th, 1952. (See Bertell, No Immediate Danger, pages 139,142 (1985))

The research team itself was given the name the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC). Many years later ABCC was reorganized with the Japanese assuming overall control. However, health effects research remained under the direction of an American (Dr. Edward Radford).

Under this reorganization the group was renamed the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). Funding, as before, was partially assumed by the United States National Academy of Sciences, which in turn, gets its money from the Department of Energy. The National Academy has (mis)managed most of the A-bomb data since 1945.

It was not until 1950 that a new LIFE SPAN STUDY was started at the ABCC, when the Japanese census identified 100,000 survivors and began to track them. This study is ongoing today. This lifetime study of A-bomb survivors is what most universities, doctors, medical researchers, and countless others base their measurements and recommendations on. This is what the National Academy of Sciences uses in its own "BEIR" reports.

However, this study is seriously dated and flawed. First, the process of identification of who was a survivor, which began five years after the bombs were dropped, has been heavily criticized. Many Japanese who survived were ashamed that they had survived, and were reluctant to admit it. Furthermore, they were considered pariahs amongst the other Japanese people, who did not want to marry them, work with them, talk to them, or deal with them. They quickly rushed to rebuild Hiroshima on contaminated land, so the "survivors" could gather and continue "surviving" together.

The second serious reason the study was flawed was because it started five years late. The hidden true effects of the first five years after the dropping of the device (a miniature device, by today's standards) has downplayed the effects for all eternity, which, in effect, let them get away with building these things bigger and bigger. "It wasn't that bad" they say. They left out the horror of the people who died of burns, pneumonia, irreparable lung damage, gastro-intestinal damage, bone marrow damage, spontaneous abortions and not to mention, those who died of intense grief combined with a suppressed and weakened immune system due to exposure to the horror and the radiation.

Furthermore, the only people who survived were those who had the strongest immune systems, who were farthest away and/or who were best shielded, so they then managed to overcome the milder radiation sickness symptoms they suffered (often, having health problems their entire lives).

So five years of data was never divulged to the public; then they did this life span study five years later on people who had already survived the first and most difficult five years. This is why they often say "between 100,000 and 250,000 people". They have no idea. The LIFE SPAN STUDY produced nothing but manipulated data which downplayed the effects of even an extremely low-yield nuclear weapon.

--- Introduction written by Pamela Blockey-O'Brien and Russell Hoffman.

Sources include:
John Hersey: Hiroshima (Vintage Books; 1989, ISBN: 0679721037. Originally published in serial form in New Yorker magazine, in the 1940's.)

Rosalie Bertell: No Immediate Danger? Prognosis for a Radioactive Earth (The Book Publishing Company, Summertown, TN, 38483, Copyright 1985, ISBN: 0-913990-25-2

Pamela Blockey-O'Brien's personal conversations at the United Nations and elsewhere with Hiroshima survivors, including Dr. Kiyoshi Tanimoto, United Methodist Minister, founder of the Hiroshima Peace Center Foundation. (Tanimoto is featured in Hersey's book; he survived radiation sickness.) Also Pamela Blockey-O'Brien spoke to "a member of the U. S. Army who went in with the second set of soldiers, six weeks after Hiroshima" (he never got over it).

Also recommended:
Barefoot Gen. An animated movie produced and written by Keiji Nakazawa, based on the cartoon by Keiji Nakazawa, about his true-life experiences in the aftermath of the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima, which he experienced as a six year old lad.


Mailing-List: contact
From: Nuclear Age Peace Foundation
Date: Fri, 6 Aug 1999 10:32:23 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: [y2k-nuclear] A Season of Hiroshima

By David Krieger, President, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation

The season of Hiroshima arrives each August in the heat of summer. The first atomic bomb used in warfare was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Three days later a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Total destruction. The flattening of cities, the incineration of all forms of life. It is a season of reflection and rededication to the future of life.

Hiroshima was the awakening of the Nuclear Age. It was a moment in history when time stood still. The clocks were frozen at 8:16 a.m. The terrible destructive power of the atomic bomb did not lead to the end of war as had been hoped. It led to the end of an innocence that could never be regained, and to a horrific arms race that placed all humanity and most of life in danger of annihilation.

Hiroshima taught us that time was not infinite for humanity, that the future was not assured. We had harnessed the awesome and awful power of the atom and, with this, the power to destroy ourselves.

Hiroshima neither was nor is about victory or defeat. Nor is it about the Japanese, the Americans, or the people of any other single country. Hiroshima belongs to all humanity, residing in our collective consciousness. It is universal. We share in its destructive fire, its suffering, its death, and its resilient hope for the future.

Some very different conclusions were drawn from the destruction of Hiroshima. The American lesson was that nuclear weapons can win wars and are thus to be valued. The American lesson is an abstract, without people in the landscape. The Japanese lesson was that nuclear weapons kill indiscriminately and that the suffering continues for those who survive, even into future generations. For the Japanese, the landscape beneath the bomb was filled with real people, some of whom survived to tell their stories.

The spirit of Hiroshima, as reflected in the lives of the survivors, is "Never Again!" The promise on the Memorial Cenotaph at Hiroshima Memorial Peace Park reads, "Let All Souls Here Rest in Peace; For We Shall Not Repeat the Evil." It is a promise not only to those who died, but to those who lived. It is a promise to all humanity and to the future. The "We" in the promise is all of us. It is a promise to ourselves.

This August 6th marks the 54th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima. It is a time for reflection and taking stock of where we are. Nuclear weapons have now survived the end of the Cold War by nearly a decade. More than 30,000 nuclear weapons remain in the arsenals of the nuclear weapons states, mostly the United States and Russia. More than 5,000 nuclear weapons remain on hair-trigger alert, ready to be fired in a matter of seconds. India and Pakistan have shown their capacity to make and test nuclear weapons. Israel has recently taken possession of small submarines said to be capable of launching nuclear armed missiles.

Before the proliferation of these weapons becomes even more widespread, it is urgent to de-alert existing arsenals and express the clear intention in the form of a treaty to eliminate them in a phased and controlled manner. This would be in the interest of every person on the planet; and it is disturbing that the United States has not provided more leadership in moving in this direction.

My top five reasons for supporting U.S. leadership in the effort to eliminate nuclear weapons are:

1 As the country that created and first used nuclear weapons, the United States has a special responsibility to work for the elimination of these weapons.

2 Existing obligations in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons call for good faith negotiations on nuclear disarmament, and many of the non-nuclear weapons states that are parties to this treaty have criticized the nuclear weapons states for their failure to act on this promise. As a leading nation in the world, the United States should keep its promises.

3 On July 8, 1996 the International Court of Justice declared that any use or threat of use of nuclear weapons that would violate international humanitarian law would be illegal. Since nuclear weapons cannot discriminate between civilians and combatants and cause unnecessary suffering, they cannot be used or threatened to be used without violating international humanitarian law. As a leading nation in the world, the United States should uphold international law.

4 The United States has strong defenses. The only weapons that threaten the security of the United States and its people are nuclear weapons. In a world without nuclear weapons, achieved through their phased elimination under strict and effective international control, the United States would be far more secure.

5 Nuclear weapons are highly immoral. To base one's national security on threatening to murder hundreds of millions of innocent civilians is an immoral act. To place the future of the human species and much of life in jeopardy as a matter of public policy is debasing to a society. The United States should assert moral as well as pragmatic leadership on this issue.

General George Lee Butler, a former Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Strategic Command, has become an ardent advocate of eliminating nuclear weapons. When he was in Santa Barbara in April to receive the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation's 1999 Distinguished Peace Leadership Award, he argued, "What is at stake here is our capacity to move ever higher the bar of civilized behavior. As long as we sanctify nuclear weapons as the ultimate arbiter of conflict, we will have forever capped our capacity to live on this planet according to a set of ideals that value human life and eschew a solution that continues to hold acceptable the shearing away of entire societies. That simply is wrong. It is morally wrong, and it ultimately will be the death of humanity."

Throughout the world the season of Hiroshima will be commemorated by a reaffirmation of the spirit of Hiroshima, and by protesting the continued reliance on nuclear weapons by a small number of nations. Information on Hiroshima related events can be found on the worldwide web at, the web site of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation.

Wherever you live, take note of this season, and spend some time in contemplation on the meaning for humanity of the historic, somber events which took place on August 6 and 9, 1945. Take time also to encourage your political leaders to move ahead on negotiations for the global elimination of nuclear weapons. It is the only way to assure that there will be no more Hiroshimas.


Learn about the effects of nuclear war here:

What is a half-life? (Compares Plutonium 238 to Plutonium 239)

What is the Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)? Is nuclear war winnable?

(2) Cluster bomblets create mini-catastrophes in Kosovo

The editor of the STOP CASSINI newsletter and others have compared Cassini's plutonium particles to tiny microscopic land mines. (Newsletters #37, 148 and 152 discuss land mines and link to various articles which consider the comparison.)


Date: Fri, 06 Aug 1999 20:13:16 -0700
From: Carol Jahnkow (
To: prcsandiego
Subject: 11,000 unexploded cluster bomblets in Yugo.

This is from the Center for Defense Information:

Cluster Bombs Leave Lasting Legacy
By Rachel Stohl, Research Analyst,

While much attention has been given to the deadly landmines littering Kosovo, there is another threat to returning refugees and peacekeepers. Unexploded cluster bombs, left over from NATO's air strikes, are strewn throughout Kosovo.

Cluster bombs are a relatively inexpensive ($16,500 each) indiscriminate weapon heavily used during NATO's 78 day air campaign in Yugoslavia. They are placed in canisters outfitted with a small parachute to allow the munition to float to the ground after it is released from an aircraft. The canisters are designed to open 50 feet off the ground. A description of the destructive capability of the cluster bombs says "they can spray incendiary material to start fires, chunks of molten metal that can pierce tanks and other armor, or shrapnel that can slice with ease through 1/4-inch plate -- or human flesh and bone."

The Department of Defense (DoD) and NATO say that U.S. warplanes dropped 1,100 cluster bombs in Kosovo. Each individual cluster bomb contains 202 bomblets, meaning 222,200 bomblets fell on Kosovo. The dud rate for cluster bombs is five percent according to DoD statistics. A DoD spokesman said the U.S. assumes that 11,110 bomblets remain unexploded in Kosovo.

Incredibly, the five percent dud rate is low compared to previous estimates based on the use of cluster bombs in Vietnam and the Gulf War. But the presence of at least 11,000 unexploded bomblets in Kosovo could create widespread mayhem among returning refugees and peacekeepers. The first two casualties to peacekeeping forces were British soldiers attempting to disarm unexploded cluster bombs. Other peace-keepers remain at risk as they try to identify the locations of unexploded bombs. Civilians, too, are threatened daily from unexploded bombs in fields, yards, destroyed homes, schools, and along streets. A recent survey by the World Health Organization (WHO) found that over 150 people have been killed or injured by landmines and unexploded ordnance in Kosovo. More than half of the casualties are believed to have been caused by unexploded bombs dropped by NATO and U.S. warplanes. According to the WHO study, an estimated 70% of the victims are under the age of 24.

The effects of NATO's unexploded munitions reach beyond Kosovo's borders. Already 161 explosive devices, including 97 bomblets, have been recovered by allied minesweepers in the Adriatic Sea. Munitions dumped at sea have caused deaths and injuries to Italian fisherman in the Adriatic and cost others the majority of the year's profits. A fishing ban in the Adriatic, extended once, is projected to last until August 31 to allow minesweepers to collect more unexploded devices. In addition, tourists have abandoned the beaches along the Adriatic coast for fear of encountering unexploded bombs.

While the problem of cluster bombs and unexploded ordnance is of concern in Kosovo, U.S. officials claim that the problem is not as severe as after previous conflicts, such as the Gulf War. A Human Rights Watch report says that of an estimated 24 to 30 million bomblets dropped during the Gulf War, between 1.2 and 1.5 million did not explode, leading to 1,220 Kuwaiti and 400 Iraqi civilian deaths.

Cluster bombs are on a long list of weapons that many people and organizations want banned. But achieving a ban will take time. In the short term, as part of strong mine awareness campaigns, civilians need to be taught to recognize the unexploded canisters and individual bomblets and instructed to stay away from them. Funding must be provided for victim assistance programs to deal with the horrific injuries caused by these devices. Finally, finding and neutralizing unexploded ordnance must be a top UN and NATO priority, for in the absence of a concerted effort the legacy from these weapons will last well into the next century.

Message from the weekly mailing list.

The Center for Defense Information
The Weekly Defense Monitor

1779 Massachusetts Ave., NW * Washington, DC 20036
(202)332-0600 * Fax (202)462-4559 *

VOLUME 3, ISSUE #30 August 5, 1999


(3) More facts about nuclear weapons:


Date: Fri, 06 Aug 1999 20:33:20 -0700
From: Carol Jahnkow
To: prcsandiego
Subject: Hiroshima Day ISSUE Briefing

Dear Peace Ctr. members and friends: The following [is from] the Coalition to Reduce Nuclear Dangers --

August 6, 1999

TO: Coalition members and friends
FR: Daryl Kimball

RE: New Coalition ISSUE BRIEF; Hiroshima/Nagasaki observances

Attached below is the e-mail text version of the Coalition's latest ISSUE BRIEF, "Nuclear Testing Index: 54 Years After Trinity, Hiroshima, It Is Time to Cage the Nuclear Genie." It is also available on the Coalition's Web Site at

At 8:00am this morning in Japan, the anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima was observed. I encourage you to visit the Hiroshima City Atomic Bomb and Peace Site ( and the Nagasaki City Site (

Also attached below is a Reuters report on the Hiroshima Day observance.




"Nuclear Testing Index:
54 Years After Trinity, Hiroshima, It Is Time to Cage the Nuclear Genie"

VOL. 3, NO. 8, August 6, 1999

"WE WAITED UNTIL the blast had passed, walked out of the shelter and then it was extremely solemn. We knew the world would not be the same," recalled J. Robert Oppenheimer, first director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, moments after the first nuclear weapon test explosion, code-named Trinity, on July 16, 1945. Twenty-one days later, at 2:45am on Sunday, August 6, the Enola Gay lifted off with its single-bomb payload from Tinian Island and headed for its target. At 8:15am, the Air Force B-29 dropped the bomb, "Little Boy," from an altitude of 31,000 feet. Forty-three seconds later, the bomb detonated 1,800 feet above Hiroshima. Aboard the Enola Gay from a distance of 11 miles from ground zero, tailgunner George Caron described the scene as a "peep into hell." Of Hiroshima's population of 340,000 people, 130,000 were dead by November 1945 and by 1950 an additional 70,000 had perished, mainly from radiation-related illnesses. On August 9, another nuclear bomb fell on Nagasaki.

In the fifty-four years since Trinity, nuclear testing has continued, driving a global nuclear arms race that has produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons and several more nuclear-armed states. The vast majority of Americans believe that the time has come to end nuclear testing and stop nuclear weapons proliferation.

The latest national public opinion survey finds that an overwhelming 82% of Americans support Senate approval of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) (including 80% of Republicans), while only 14% oppose. A larger majority (84%) believe that a ban on all nuclear test explosions is a better way for the United States to protect itself from nuclear threats posed by other countries, than resuming our own nuclear test explosions, which is favored by only 11% (Mellman Group/Wirthlin Worldwide, June 1999).

Wanted: Leadership on Nuclear Non-Proliferation

However, the United States is becoming a bigger part of the problem than it is a part of the solution. According to a new report by a group of leading nuclear experts, commissioned by the government of Japan and released this week, the failure of the United States and other nuclear powers to ratify the CTBT and their weakening of other pacts against other weapons of mass destruction, undercuts decades of arms control and is making the world much less safe. The report by the group, The Tokyo Forum for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament, says the most immediate threat of nuclear conflict is in Asia where India and Pakistan conducted nuclear explosions last year. (See ( for the full report.)

The following index of nuclear weapons facts underscores the importance of acting now to address the threat of nuclear weapons before the world suffers another Hiroshima or Nagasaki:


1,030: Total number of United States nuclear weapons test explosions.

2,051: Total number of nuclear weapons test explosions.

19,744: Days since the start of the nuclear weapons age.

9.62 days: Average time between nuclear blasts.

7,104: Total number of nuclear weapons at the time of the first nuclear test ban negotiations (1958).

38,000: Total number of nuclear weapons at the conclusion of nuclear test ban negotiations (1996).

2: Number of nuclear tests conducted in Pakistan.

2: Number of nuclear tests conducted in Mississippi.

50: Number of days between the signature of the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty and its ratification.

1,056: Number of days since U.S. signed the CTBT.

682: Number of days since the transmittal of the CTBT to the Senate for its advice and consent for ratification.

682: Number of days that Senator Helms (R-NC) has refused to hold Senate hearings on the CTBT.

152: Number of countries that have signed the CTBT.

80%: Percentage of countries worldwide that have signed CTBT.

44: Number of states listed in Article XIV of the CTBT that must ratify for Treaty entry into force.

41: Number of countries that have ratified the CTBT.

21: Number of states listed in Article XIV that have ratified so far.

15/19: Portion of NATO allies which have ratified.

4: Number of nuclear tests since the CTBT was sent to the Senate for its advice and consent.

179 megatons: Estimated total yield released by United States nuclear weapons test explosions.

427.9 megatons: Estimated total yield of all nuclear weapons test explosions.

114: Number of U.S. underground nuclear tests that released radioactive material into the atmosphere.

10,000: Additional cases of thyroid cancer that will occur as a result of fallout from 90 U.S. nuclear tests.

The Coalition to Reduce Nuclear Dangers is a non-partisan alliance of 17 of the nation's leading non-proliferation organizations. *The views expressed in this paper do not necessarily reflect those of every member of the Coalition.

Sources: The Brookings Institution; U.S. Department of Energy; CTBT Organization; National Academy of Sciences; National Cancer Institute; Natural Resources Defense Council; Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986). Research by Andrew Howells.



08/06 0134

Japan mourns, calls for arms cuts on Hiroshima day

By Eriko Sugita

HIROSHIMA - Tens of thousands gathered in this western Japanese city on Friday, the 54th anniversary of the dropping of the first atomic bomb, to mourn those killed and renew calls for the elimination of nuclear arms.

Demands for arms reduction took on a grim significance amid mounting tensions in Asia after a Chinese missile test earlier this week, rising friction between China and Taiwan, and fears that North Korea may be preparing to test-launch a new missile.

Incense spiralled from altars in central Hiroshima's Peace Park, near the site of the atomic bomb explosion on August 6, 1945, as people clad in black made offerings of flowers and lit candles.

Others brought thousands of folded paper cranes as a symbol of peace by which to remember the day 54 years ago when the city became a living hell.

The bomb dropped on Hiroshima killed some 140,000 people by the end of 1945, out of an estimated population of 350,000. Thousands more succumbed to illness and injuries later.

At Friday's ceremony another 5,071 names were added to the lists of the dead, bringing the total to 212,116.

Hiroshima Mayor Tadatoshi Akiba declared the abolition of nuclear weapons to be the most important responsibility for the future of the world.

"We also call upon the government to place the highest priority on forging the will to abolish nuclear weapons," he told an estimated 50,000 people attending ceremonies at the park.

In a veiled dig at recent moves toward possibly revising Japan's war-renouncing Constitution, he added: "It is imperative that the government of Japan follow the philosophy outlined in the preamble of the Constitution."

Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi pledged that the government will work towards nuclear disarmament, but warned that many difficulties exist.

"There has been no end of regional conflicts due to ethnic and religious problems, as seen in Kosovo, and we see new moves toward possessing nuclear arms," Obuchi said.

"The world security situation is difficult, and we still have a long way to go towards achieving nuclear disarmament."

Later Obuchi touched on one of Asia's more pressing security concerns, the possibility that North Korea might launch a missile. He told reporters covering his visit to Hiroshima that in the government's judgment a missile launch is not imminent.

He added that Japan was in close contact with South Korea and the United States on the issue, Jiji news agency reported.

In a demonstration of expanded defence cooperation between Japan and South Korea, naval vessels from the two nations took part in a joint training exercise earlier this week in the East China Sea.

The first-ever exercises consisted mainly of search-and-rescue drills and were roundly condemned by North Korea, whose Korean Central News Agency called them an "ill-boding military movement" and "prelude to re-invasion."

While words of warning on nuclear weaponry emanated from Hiroshima, however, the international environmental group Greenpeace on Friday called Japan to task for shipping plutonium fuel from Europe aboard two British-flagged ships. The shipments left Europe in late July.

In a statement, Greenpeace Japan Executive Director Sanae Shida said: "The people of Japan have had direct experience of the use of plutonium in nuclear weapons. As a result, Japan has long sought to become a world leader in nuclear non- proliferation."

But she added: "If it continues with a plutonium programme, its actions may threaten its words."


Daryl Kimball, Executive Director
Coalition to Reduce Nuclear Dangers
110 Maryland Avenue NE, Suite 505
Washington, DC 20002
(ph) 202-546-0795 (fax) 202-546-7970
website (


The Peace Resource Center is located in San Diego, California and is a renowned institution for peace education in the region.

(4) The Day After: JPL opens for questions, explanations:

Larry Klaes has been a resourceful pair of eyes on the Internet. He has forwarded hundreds of relevant documents he has come across on the Internet, bringing us material covering both sides of numerous issues. We cannot thank him enough for his efforts. Here is yet another "hot tip". It seems JPL wants to tell the public all about Cassini -- AFTER the flyby!


Date: Fri, 06 Aug 1999 10:52:35 -0400
To: "Russell D. Hoffman"
From: Larry Klaes
Subject: Cassini mission subject of JPL lecture

Date: Thu, 5 Aug 1999 17:31:08 -0700 (PDT)
Subject: Cassini mission subject of JPL lecture
To: undisclosed-recipients:;

PASADENA, CALIF. 91109 TELEPHONE (818) 354-5011

Contact: Mary Beth Murrill, (818) 354-6478



Saturn, its rings, moons and the other wonders to be explored by the Cassini space mission are the topics of the next von Karman Lecture to be held at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena on Thursday, Aug. 19, and at Pasadena City College on Friday, Aug. 20. Both lectures are free of charge, open to the public and seating is on a first-come, first-served basis. Parking is free.

"Voyage to the Ringed Giant: The Cassini Spacecraft Completes Two Years of Its Seven-Year Journey to Saturn," will be presented by Dr. Ellis Miner, the Cassini Program's science adviser at JPL. The international Cassini mission is managed by JPL for NASA.

Launched two years ago, the Cassini spacecraft began a journey of many years to reach and explore Saturn, the most distant planet that can easily be seen by the unaided human eye. In addition to Saturn's interesting atmosphere and interior, its vast system contains the most spectacular ring system in the solar system, numerous icy satellites with a variety of unique surface features, a huge magnetic environment teeming with particles that interact with the rings and moons, and the large, intriguing moon Titan, which is slightly larger than the planet Mercury, and whose hazy atmosphere is denser Earth's.

The lecture at JPL will be held in the von Karman Auditorium located at 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, near the Oak Grove Dr. exit of the 210 (Foothill) Freeway. On Friday, the lecture will be held in Pasadena City College's Forum at 1570 E. Colorado Blvd. For more information, call (818) 354-5011.

JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.


(5) What you can do today to stop the Cassini flyby of Earth:

The hour is late: To stop Cassini and other future mad-scientist launches, please redistribute this newsletter to everyone you know! Chances are they have never heard of Cassini, never visited our STOP CASSINI web site, never heard of or considered the effects of the Electromagnetic Pulse that will undoubtedly start a nuclear war if one occurs at all. And chances are good they would not even be able to tell you who played Dr. Strangelove (and two other roles) in the movie of the same name! There is a crisis in education in America and around the world -- you can take it seriously or you can let it kill you. But if we all join together and oppose this impending global destruction, maybe, just maybe, we can convince the powers that be to put down their genocidal toys.

To learn about the absurd excuses NASA used to launch Cassini in 1997, ask them for the 1995 Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini Mission, and all subsequent documentation. At the same time, be sure to ask them for ANY and ALL documentation available on future uses of plutonium in space, including MILITARY, CIVILIAN, or "OTHER" (just in case they make a new category somehow!). To get this information, contact:

Cassini Public Information
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena CA 91109
(818) 354-5011 or
(818) 354-6478

NASA states that they do not have the resources anymore to answer most emails they receive. Liars! They have $13 billion dollars to play with. They can answer the public's questions!

Here's NASA's "comments" email address:

Daniel Goldin is the head of NASA. Here's his email address: or

Here's the NASA URL to find additional addresses to submit written questions to:


Be sure to "cc" the president and VP and your senators and congresspeople, too.

Always include your full name and postal address in all correspondence to any Government official of any country.

(6) Subscription information

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