STOP CASSINI Newsletter #232 -- November 27th, 1999
Copyright (c) 1999
STOP CASSINI Newsletters Index
To: Subscribers, government officials, members of the press
From: Russell David Hoffman, Y2K theorist
Re: Being hopeless and in despair only makes matters worse: STOP CASSINI #232
Date: November 27th, 1999
This issue's subjects:
- (1) Dr John Gofman's Latest On X-Rays & Cancer, Heart Disease Correlation
- (2) Diet for the Atomic Age (a book by Sara Shannon)
- (3) This looks like an excellent place to order your Potassium Iodide (KI) from
- (4) Another apologist for Y2K unmasked (local dude on KFMB)
- (5) Riot plan? Even the idea is terrifying (from Robert Sterling's Konformist)
- (6) Oprah Winfrey to give Bill Richardson a chance to lie to the American public
- (7) Shuttle grounded by wiring problems -- Gyros failed on Hubble -- what else is new?
- (8) Ukraine government holds the world hostage as it restarts Chernobyl Reactor #3
- (9) Tell Clinton how you feel -- Official government contact points
- (10) Newsletter subscription information
- (11) Newsletter Authorship notes and additional URLs
(1) Dr John Gofman's Latest On X-Rays & Cancer, Heart Disease Correlation
----- FORWARDED MESSAGE (CUT OFF?) FROM BILL SMIRNOW: -----
Date: Wed, 24 Nov 1999 07:28:04 -0500 (EST)
: : :
Subject: [y2k-nuclear] Dr John Gofman's Latest On X-Rays & Cancer, Heart Disease Correlation
: : :
Executive Summary of Dr. John Gofman's Latest Book is on the Web
The complete Executive Summary of the just-published third report
in the Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation (HEIR) Reports series
Radiation from Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer
and Ischemic Heart Disease: Dose-Response Studies with Physicians
per 100 000 Population
John W. Gofman
Molecular and Cell Biology
University of California
Edited by Egan O'Connor
-- is available at:
In the near term Chapters 2-5 of Section One (Orientation
Materials Methods) will also be available at the above location.
The press release from University of California at Berkeley
follows. While the URL for the above was not included in the UC
Berkeley press release it is included in the story filed by
AScribe at --
-- which also includes contact information.
ratitor and publisher
rat haus reality press
University of California
Berkeley Radiation expert warns of danger
from overuse of medical X-rays claiming they're responsible for
many cancer and heart disease deaths
By Robert Sanders
BERKELEY-- A noted University of California Berkeley expert on
the health effects of radiation has concluded that a large
proportion of deaths today from cancer and heart disease are due
in part to past exposure to medical radiation.
John W. Gofman professor emeritus of molecular and cell biology
at UC Berkeley conducted an intensive analysis comparing death
rates in each of the country's nine census divisions with the
average number of physicians per 100 000 people in these
The analysis turned up a major surprise. While death rates from
almost all causes went down with increasing physician density
death rates rose with physician density in two categories: cancer
and ischemic heart disease also known as coronary heart disease.
Gofman who for decades has warned of the dangers of low-level
radiation concluded that the cause is medical X-rays including
fluoroscopy and computed tomography or CT scans. The analysis and
conclusions are published this week in a 700-page monograph by
the book division of the Committee for Nuclear Responsibility
Inc. a non-profit public interest association Gofman founded in
This is a serious public health problem, Gofman said. "We're
talking about the two biggest causes of death in this country -
cancer and heart disease - which together amount to 45 percent of
all deaths. Medical X-rays are a major cause of these deaths."
Gofman does not discount the role of other factors in these
diseases including diet and smoking but maintains that more than
half the deaths from cancer and heart disease would not have
occurred but for medical X-rays.
He also acknowledges the value of X-rays in diagnosis and to
monitor medical treatment. Nevertheless he urges physicians to be
careful of unnecessarily high doses of X-rays and to advise
patients of the pros and cons of X-rays much as they alert
patients to the possible side effects of drugs.
My findings are not going to cause patients to reject the obvious
benefits of medical X-rays, Gofman said. "People are smart. Very
soon patients may insist on seeing some evidence that they will
receive the lowest possible X-ray doses."
He also urges radiologists to reduce radiation doses delivered in
standard procedures and in his study lists examples of how some
hospitals and doctors have done this.
These findings point to a safe and painless way to achieve big
reductions in mortality from our two biggest killers, cancer and
coronary heart disease, he said. "Reduce X-ray dosages since the
benefits of an X-ray can be obtained at much lower levels.
When X-ray doses for mammograms were reduced tenfold, women began
receiving the benefits with only one-tenth the former risk of
getting cancer, added Gofman who in 1995 published a study that
ascribed 75 percent of breast cancer cases to past exposure from
medical radiation. "But for many many other X-ray procedures the
effort to achieve a tenfold reduction in dosage has not been made
The problem he argues is an almost casual use of X-rays in the
past. Through the 1940s X-ray dosages often were 50 to 100 times
those used today. Even as recently as the 1960s mammograms
sometimes delivered more than 100 times today's maximum allowed
radiation dose. X-rays also were widely used for procedures
doctors now know were unnecessary such as routine X-rays during
pediatric well-baby exams.
Though radiation doses have declined in many medical procedures a
proliferation of new uses of diagnostic and interventional
radiation threatens to keep cumulative doses high and thereby
contribute to a higher mortality from heart disease and cancer he
said. What makes the situation even more alarming is that few
physicians monitor the cumulative doses their patients get.
There is the assumption that, at these doses, radiation doesn't
make a significant contribution, he said. "But X-rays are very
potent mutagens even at low doses. It's a disaster that people
still believe the 'safe dose myth ' that low doses are harmless."
Gofman 81 has had a distinguished career in several fields
ranging from nuclear physics and lipoprotein research - he was
the first to show that high levels of low-density lipoproteins or
LDLs were a risk factor for atherosclerosis - to the health
effects of radiation.
He began his recent analysis by using a huge census database that
lists cause of death per age group within the country's nine
census divisions covering the entire population from 1940 to
He wanted to compare the death rates with estimates of the amount
of medical radiation received on average by the population but no
such data exists. He therefore used a surrogate statistic: the
number of physicians per 100 000 population amassed over the
years by the American Medical Association. He reasoned that since
physicians prescribe X-rays the number prescribed should be
roughly proportional to the number of doctors serving the
Using regression analysis he found that age-adjusted death rates
for all types of cancer combined and for ischemic heart disease
by itself rose with the number of physicians per 100 000
population in the census divisions. Conversely all other diseases
when lumped together showed a drop in the death rate as physician
density rose. This held true in all age ranges.
Gofman argues that the correlation implies that death rates for
cancer and heart disease have gone up as the number of medical
procedures requiring radiation has gone up. Specifically the
study concludes that over 50 percent of the death rate from
cancer today and over 60 percent of today's death rate from
ischemic heart disease are induced by X-rays in combination with
Prior to 1940, no medical exam was considered complete without
X-ray procedures, generally including fluoroscopy where the X-ray
beam stays on, he said. "In fact X-ray exposure began even in the
womb for many people who are now age 30 and over because until
1970 about one birth in every 14 was preceded by pelvic X-rays of
the mother shortly before delivery to measure the birth canal."
He discounts other explanations for the correlation such as
urbanization differences in autopsy rates different rates of
reporting cancer deaths and the possibility that chemotherapy for
cancer could have caused some of the ischemic heart disease.
Though it is not surprising that cancer rates go up with the
number of medical X-rays Gofman was surprised to find a similar
situation with ischemic heart disease even though he was aware of
studies that suggest atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries can
be stimulated by chemical mutagens.
It has been known for decades that high doses of radiation injure
or kill the heart and blood vessels, Gofman said. "This study is
about low and moderate doses accumulated over time. Each dose no
matter how low produces mutations so by the time you're 50 all of
these events have added to the mutation load in your cells."
Fluoroscopies in particular are a major source of radiation today
he said because the beam stays on during the procedure such as
threading a catheter or endoscope. The total dose can easily be
reduced he said by using the fluoroscope only periodically not
This makes good sense for doctors and their patients, he said. We
must reduce the amount of radiation patients get, and measure it
to make sure we're right.
The study was funded by numerous small gifts from individuals and
----- END OF FORWARDED MESSAGE (CUT OFF?) FROM BILL SMIRNOW -----
I'm sure the missing text is NOT the words "corporate users and makers of x-ray equipment". -- rdh
(2) Diet for the Atomic Age (a book by Sara Shannon):
Diet for the Atomic Age, by Sara Shannon, is an incredibly important book for everyone who eats food grown on Planet Earth (that's all of us, at the moment). It originally appeared in 1987. Here is a good description of what is in the book and why it's important:
"One of the aims of the book was to point out the problem, as well as giving a solution in terms of utilizing foods for their radioprotective properties. Although, we are now at such a place that the remedy of eating to preclude the uptake of similar radioactive elements, even though still totally valid, is no longer sufficient. The continuing release of radioactive elements to our whole Earth will make it not livable. In one instance by reason of loss of oxygen. Plants are absorbing radioactive carbon. Also, the ozone is wearing down, with one initiating factor being radioactivity. This and more on the overview is discussed on the website: www.mothersalert.org/ in the last article under the heading Get More Info. The article is under the title Solutions."
(3) This looks like an excellent place to order your Potassium Iodide (KI) from:
Any long-time subscribers of the STOP CASSINI newsletter who have not begun to stock up on water and food for the Y2K "holiday", and who have not yet purchased Potassium Iodide (KI) in case of a nuclear accident, might as well "unsubscribe" -- you just aren't listening!. However, for any new subscribers who are not yet prepared for Y2K, here is what looks like an excellent source (we already purchased ours from another source, and probably paid more!):
----- PRESS RELEASE FROM KI4U: -----
Shane Connor, author
Potassium Iodide Radiation Protection FAQ
602 College St.
Gonzales, TX 78629
(830) 672-3799 (Fax)
Americans Buying Radiation Protection Pills On The Web
Potassium Iodide Radiation Protection FAQ leading the way.
November 10, 1999 (INB) -- While various government
agencies continue a 20 year long debate over funding
the stockpiling of Potassium Iodide in case of nuclear
accidents, war, and now even terrorism, many Americans
aren't waiting any longer.
With news of the recent nuclear accident in Tokaimura,
Japan and continuing reports of the growing numbers of
thyroid cancers amongst young Chernobyl victims, who
were not issued potassium iodide, Americans are
increasingly seeking out their own sources for this
radiation protection medicine.
Some are even buying it with concerns of Y2K induced
nuclear accidents or missile launches, suit-case
nuclear bomb terrorism, or a nuclear exchange overseas
with radioactive fallout reaching out to our shores.
At http://www.ki4u.com/ they are learning all about
potassium iodide while discovering all the sources to
buy it on the web, at the...
Potassium Iodide Radiation Protection FAQ
There is nothing more comprehensive on the web as this
FAQ which draws extensively from government agencies,
medical sources and experts as it answers:
What is Potassium Iodide (KI)?
How does Potassium Iodide (KI) pill provide radiation protection?
Is this the Magic Radiation Protection Pill?
Radioactive Iodine: Bad News / Good News?
Dosage and safety regarding Potassium Iodide (KI) usage?
Is iodized salt, sea salt, fish, or kelp effective?
Is the government ready with emergency stocks of KI?
What's The NRC's "Fighter Jet Rule" on KI?
Will KI flush radioactive iodine out of the thyroid gland?
Where can you obtain KI over-the-counter?
What about Potassium Iodate (KIO3)?
How do you make a KI solution?
Long term stability of stocked KI?
How much personally stocked KI is enough?
When should I take it?
For how long should I take it?
Location of nuclear reactors in U.S.?
As Chernobyl proved, and health experts now agree, the
greatest health concerns of nuclear accidents are likely
to be from radioactive iodine readily carried by the
winds many miles downwind from the site of a nuclear
Governments world-wide are now stockpiling potassium
iodide. Amongst them Japan, Canada, Britain, France,
Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Denmark, Norway, Austria,
Sweden, etc., but the U.S. hasn't yet.
But, American citizens aren't waiting anymore, they are
discovering at http://www.ki4u.com/ where to buy it on
their own! (Currently over 600 unique visitors daily via
Visitors to the FAQ come looking for, and are finding,
the potassium iodide information and resources to protect
their families against future nuclear emergencies with
the extensive source listings and price comparisons there.
The FAQ visitors understand that after Three Mile Island
and Chernobyl all available potassium iodide supplies
disappeared for months, almost overnight! They are
wanting to put some aside today, for their families, and
an uncertain future.
The author of the FAQ at http://www.ki4u.com/ , Shane Connor
from South Texas, has been a life-long advocate of family
preparedness. He equates stocking away some potassium
iodide to the Life insurance his Dad, at 74, still sells.
"Just like buying insurance to protect our families,
just-in-case, we also still pray and hope never to have
to use it anytime soon."
Visit the Potassium Iodide Radiation Protection FAQ at
# # #
----- END OF PRESS RELEASE FROM KI4U -----
----- INCOMING EMAIL THE STOP CASSINI EDITOR FROM SHANE CONNER, KI4U: -----
BTW, we run on very tight margins here so that we can get out
all the different types of KI and KIO3 at the cheapest prices
anywhere. (Virtually break-even!) Got a lot of other KI dealers
upset cause we list all their prices in comparison, but anybody
trying to get 50 cents up to over a buck and a half PER TABLET,
for this essential medicine, deserves more than a little frustration!
----- END OF LETTER FROM SHANE CONNER -----
We recommend our readers visit http://www.ki4u.com/ at their earliest convenience. Although most Y2K-preparedness businesses are not yet reporting the brisk business they deserve, a run on these products should be expected soon. -- rdh
(4) Another apologist for Y2K unmasked (local dude on KFMB):
----- OUTGOING LETTER TO THE NORTH COUNTY TIMES (CALIFORNIA): -----
To: North County Times
From: Russell Hoffman, Carlsbad, California (faxed)
To The Editor:
Please tell Dollars & Sense writer and KSDO commentator George Chamberlin to DO THE MATH. Namely, he writes (today, Sat. Nov. 27th,1999) that the Government is spending $100 Million on Y2K. The correct figure (recently released) is $100 Billion -- a thousand times more. There is no government expert who fully grasps the dangers we face -- there are no Y2K "experts" anywhere -- only theorists.
And please also tell Mr. Chamberlin that "Y2K: The Movie" did NOT make clear to careful observers that all will be well on Jan. 1, 2000. Rather, it showed that prudent and wise things that America should do, we ARE NOT DOING.
I hope the NCT will consider doing an article about the W.A.S.H. (World Atomic Safety Holiday) campaign to shut the nukes down for Y2K, and other positive steps that can and should be taken to prepare for Y2K. Readers should be told the whole truth, and should not have to settle for George Chamberlin's myopic reassurances.
Here is my own Y2K web site, which discusses all these matters in detail, and was one of the first (if not THE first) web page to recommend STAYING HOME for Y2K:
----- END OF OUTGOING LETTER TO THE NORTH COUNTY TIMES (CALIFORNIA) -----
(5) Riot plan? Even the idea is terrifying (from Robert Sterling's Konformist):
----- CLIP FROM ROBERT STERLING'S KONFORMIST NEWSLETTER: -----
Subject: Konformist: Ian Goddard - Riot Plan?/Xerox
Please send as far and wide as possible.
Editor, The Konformist
Ian Goddard Posts
Govt. Riot Plan EXPOSED?
Thursday, November 25, 1999
The FBI and the U.S. Attorney's office recently had a webpage shutdown that had a video allegedly taken during a military briefing, according to a report in the Village Voice. The video reveals a secret Army plan to incite race riots at Times Square on New Year's Eve. The fact that the FBI and US Attorney's office intimidated the owner of the site and finally coerced his ISP with threats of shutting them down in order to suppress the video appears to support this conclusion: The video is genuine and the government is planning to create chaos on Y2K. Such an operation could establish the necessary pretext to activate Martial Law and end freedom, which is just what the suppressed video indicates.
According to the Voice, "Both the U.S. Attorney's office and the FBI had no comment" on this case.
Here's the Internet in action, the FBI may have removed the video from one site, but not from these sites, download it and make it known:
----- END OF CLIP FROM ROBERT STERLING'S KONFORMIST NEWSLETTER -----
The full report seen in Konformist includes the complete Village Voice article, which is available at this URL:
In an interview by this editor with Mr. Robert Sterling, Sterling states that he feels unquestionably that the film is a Blair Witch Project sort of thing, a fake for the sake of art, but that the real story here is the suppression of free speech, as exhibited by the FBI's response to the video. -- rdh
(6) Oprah Winfrey to give Bill Richardson a chance to lie to the American public:
This just came in from a friend:
If you'd like to email Oprah and object to DOE Secretary Bill Richardson's appearance on her show this coming Monday (to offer the "truth" about the Y2K bug/nuclear problems, go to this site, and it should be set up to email her.
-- Russell Hoffman (with Beth Hill's help)
(7) Shuttle grounded by wiring problems -- Gyros failed on Hubble -- what else is new?:
As I write this, the entire Space Shuttle fleet remains grounded for wiring and other problems. Lockheed-Martin remains a bumbling, unchecked elephant in a china shop, destroying Earth for the sake of profit. The Hubble telescope is essentially out of commission because a fourth gyroscope has failed. The full reports on the Mars Climate Orbiter indicate management failures and operational ineptitudes at all levels and in all organizations involved -- scores of people dropped the ball. The wire insulation used on nearly all Boeing commercial jets built though 1995 and still flying (called Kapton) has come under severe question. A TLC show premiered this week, showing the fire dangers this material poses.
The spokesperson for Aviation Safety at Boeing was quoted on the TLC show, and he was incredibly callous and in utter denial of the clear and present danger this wire is (even though Boeing no longer makes airplanes with it). For example, he had the nerve to claim that the wiring, if regularly and properly inspected, poses no safety threats. But the show clearly demonstrated the stupidity of that remark: The 150 MILES of wiring in a typical airplane simply cannot all be properly inspected. The wire bundles get covered with dust. They run through impossible-to-reach places (the wiring harness is built into the airplane at the time the plane is manufactured). There are big bundles of similar-looking wires. It's dark, and mirrors and flashlights must be used. The Boeing apologist is crazy. His name is Mike Nancarrow. Kapton is suspected in many crashes, including SwissAir Flight 111 (an MD-11).
Boeing's troubles stem from an upper-management which is not answerable to the greater needs of the community -- only to their shareholders. The community needs less big jets and more ground transportation systems, from busses and trolleys to magnetic levitation mass transit systems which go between the hearts of our great cities, instead of expensive, dangerous, fuel-inefficient airplanes, which can be crashed into nuclear power plants at the will of the pilot, if he's crazy.
It's time for big changes in America and the rest of the world. Let's hope these changes are not forced upon us by our communal unwillingness to face the real Y2K issues which are coming in just a little more than a month. -- rdh
(8) Ukraine government holds the world hostage as it restarts Chernobyl Reactor #3:
Despite intense international pressure, Ukrainian authorities have restarted the last remaining reactor of the four reactors at Chernobyl, scene of the world's worst nuclear accident (so far). (The other two undamaged reactors were shut down permanently.) Although the San Diego Union-Tribune states in an article in today's paper (Saturday, November 27th, 1999) that Ukrainian authorities have blamed 8,000 deaths on the Chernobyl accident, far more reliable sources than the SD U-T state that the Ukrainian Health Ministry claim more than 100,000 have died from Chernobyl! Perhaps the Health Ministry knows better, since they are closer to the "action", and they are not trying to restart the reactor or build new ones. And the worst is yet to come, as Chernobyl's radioactive poisons spread around the environment. The100,000+ deaths are deaths that have already happened in the 1 1/2 decades since the Chernobyl nuclear accident.
Worse than the fact that they are restarting Chernobyl is the fact that the Ukrainian government is demanding $1.2 billion dollars from the West in order to build two new reactors, before they will agree to shut Chernobyl's last precarious reactor down! What a devil's deal that is!
According to the Associate Press article, Ben Pearson, an anti-nuclear campaigner for Greenpeace, stated, "Chernobyl is probably the most dangerous reactor in the world." -- rdh
(9) Tell Clinton how you feel -- Official government contact points:
To contact the top government officials:
President Bill Clinton
White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20500
Phone -- (202) 456-1111 Fax -- (202) 456-2461
Vice President Albert Gore
White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Ave.,
N.W.,Washington, D.C. 20500
Phone -- (202) 456-1414 Fax -- (202) 456-2461
Secretary William Cohen
Washington D.C. 20301
Phone -- (703) 695-6352 Fax -- (703) 695-1149
Secretary Bill Richardson
Department of Energy (DoE)
1000 Independence Avenue SW
Washington D.C. 20585
Phone -- (202) 586-6210 Fax -- (202) 586-4403
To learn about the absurd excuses NASA used to launch Cassini and its 72.3 pounds of plutonium in 1997, ask them for the 1995 Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, and all subsequent documentation. At the same time, be sure to ask them for ANY and ALL documentation available on future uses of plutonium in space, including MILITARY, CIVILIAN, or "OTHER" (just in case they make a new category somehow!). To get this information, contact:
Cassini Public Information
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena CA 91109
(818) 354-5011 or (818) 354-6478
Here's NASA's "comments" email address: email@example.com
Daniel Goldin is the head of NASA. Here's his email address:
Here's the NASA URL to find additional addresses to submit written questions to:
YOU HAVE A RIGHT TO KNOW WHAT NASA IS DOING TO YOUR HEALTH.
NASA should never have been allowed to launch monstrosities like Cassini and Galileo, but the next breed -- such as Europa Orbiter and Pluto-Kuiper Express are not much better and the policy is being set for greatly increased rates of missions! The danger continues! To complain to NASA about their future nuclear space probes, here are two addresses you can use:
For Europa Orbiter:
"Europa Orbiter comments" <
For Pluto-Kuiper Express:
"Pluto-Kuiper Express comments" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Be sure to "cc" the president and VP and your senators and congresspeople, too.
Always include your full name and postal address in all correspondence to any Government official of any country, because otherwise they will throw it out unread, or hand it directly to their police force to try to identify the author. (Thus, nothing good will come of it.) Also, ALWAYS include a personal message of some sort, indicating YOUR OWN VIEWS, even if you include a lot of material written by other people (me, for instance).
(10) Newsletter subscription information:
Thanks for reading! Welcome new subscribers!
Home page of our STOP CASSINI movement:
(Beware of imitations!)
To subscribe, simply email the editor at
email@example.com and state:
SUBSCRIBE STOP CASSINI NEWSLETTER
Please include a personal message of any
length and subject matter. Thank you!
To unsubscribe email me and say
UNSUBSCRIBE STOP CASSINI NEWSLETTER
Published by Russell D. Hoffman electronically.
Written in the United States of America.
This newsletter is free and is not distributed for profit.
The opinions expressed are those of the individual authors.
Please distribute these newsletters EVERYWHERE!
"There can be no democracy without truth, no justice without mercy, and no nuclear dispersals without ill consequences."
(11) Newsletter Authorship notes and additional URLs:
Many of the issues presented by Russell Hoffman in this letter are based on conversations with Dr. John W. Gofman (who isolated the first working quantities of plutonium), the late Dr. Karl Z. Morgan (who was known as the "father of health physics"), Dr. Ernest Sternglass (a noted epidemiologist who has done statistical studies about LLR), Dr. Jay Gould (ditto), Dr. Horst Poehler, Dr. Helen Caldicott, Dr. Ross Wilcock and dozens of activists, as well as many others on both sides of the nuclear debates, including ex military nuke expert Jack Shannon (responsible for the design of the D2G Navy reactor, the most widely used reactor in the U. S. navy), award-winning investigative reporter Karl Grossman, ecologist and human rights advocate Pamela Blockey-O'Brien, etc. Also, I've read a few dozen books on the various subjects. And scads of government documents purporting to explain how something so dangerous can be safe.
Professionally, my pump training software is used throughout the pump industry and even in some nuclear power plants around the world to train their staff about mechanical pumps. Any errors herein are regrettably my own, but I believe it would take an extremely unlikely preponderance of errors to invalidate my basic position on these issues.
Russell D. Hoffman, Carlsbad, California, Peace Activist, Environmentalist, High Tech Guru:
Hoffman's Y2K Preparedness Information:
Learn about The Effects of Nuclear War here:
** THE ANIMATED SOFTWARE COMPANY
** Russell D. Hoffman, Owner and Chief Programmer
** Carlsbad CA
** Visit the world's most eclectic web site:
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First placed online November 30th, 1999.
Last modified November 30th, 1999.
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