STOP CASSINI Newsletter #220 -- November 1st, 1999

Copyright (c) 1999

STOP CASSINI Newsletters Index

To: Subscribers, government officials, members of the press

From: Russell David Hoffman, Crying out to the planet to save itself!

Re: Is humanity a lost cause? Let's pretend not!: STOP CASSINI #220

Date: November 1st, 1999 (evening edition) -- less than two months to go before Y2K-day

This issue's subjects:

(1) John Hallam, FOE Sydney, FAX CAMPAIGN (#1 OF 2):


Date: Sun, 31 Oct 1999 17:40:43 +1000
From: FoE Sydney - Nuclear Campaign

John Hallam
Friends of the Earth Sydney,
17 Lord street, Newtown, NSW, Australia,
Fax(61)(2)9517-3902 ph (61)(2)9517-3903


+7-095-244-3276, +7-095-244-2203
7-095-247-2722, 7-095-293-3323






Dear Foreign Minister Ivanov,

I am writing to acknowledge your letter postmarked Moscow 15 July,(which reached us in September) in response to a letter from a very large number of non-governmental organizations worldwide, which asks the US and your governments to take nuclear forces off hairtrigger alert over the Y2K rollover period, so that Y2K induced computer errors do not lead to an accidental nuclear exchange or nuclear war.

First of all let me thank you for having replied promptly to this letter. The US administration has as yet made no response. It is especially gratifying to see that the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has studied the letter carefully.

Let me also assure you that we have continued to fax the letter which now has been signed by over 460 organizations worldwide signed on to it, not because we have somehow neglected to take account of your reply. Rather, a decision was taken at an early stage of this campaign to continue transmission of the large sign-on letter until late December. I therefore include the latest compilation of the sign on letter to this reply.

A global campaign exists to try to persuade your and the US Governments to take strategic nuclear weapons off alert. You will note for example that the Australian Senate has passed resolutions on Y2K and the de-alerting of nuclear weapons twice, and these resolutions have also been transmitted to your embassy by the Deputy President of the Senate.

I think I need hardly remind you what is at stake. Recent simulations of the effects of a nuclear exchange suggest that the detonation of roughly 5,500 nuclear warheads could possibly eliminate all or most life on the planet, and would very likely mean the end of the human species. It is indubitably the worst possible event not only for the US and Russia - which would equally be wiped out as functioning societies - but indeed for the entire planet, including Australia from where I write.

This is why our letter concludes that no considerations of national security or politics can be allowed to obscure what is at stake, namely the continued ability of the planet to support life.

It is reassuring that you write that 'the Russian federation completely realizes all the responsibility that lies on Russia concerning the prevention of the catastrophic consequences of this disorder'.

I note that you also state that Russia is conducting intensive work for the solution of the Y2K problem, and that you are convinced that the work of your experts will be completed successfully.

We have noted in a letter to US Defence Secretary William S. Cohen, which will be copied to you, that it is never possible to be certain that all possible computer 'bugs' have been eliminated until the actual event itself, and even then not until some months into the new year. This applies to US claims that all Y2K computer problems are solved in its systems, and it certainly applies to your own situation. This is simply intrinsic to the nature of the Y2K programming problem as it is to any complex and deep-seated programming problem.

I note also that you and US Defence Secretary Cohen have signed an agreement to create a Y2K strategic stability center in Colorado. This is a positive and indeed an essential move and we fully support it. However we are deeply concerned about the fact that the center is only scheduled to become operational on December 27th. This means that a delay of some 4 days will render it useless.

We are still more concerned about the fact that Y2K problems and vulnerabilities have been discovered in the nuclear 'hotlines' between the US and Russia. Any serious computer malfunctions in nuclear command and control systems will require immediate use of the hotlines in a situation in which decision-making times are measured in minutes - unless of course nuclear weapons are de- alerted.

We therefore conclude that the only way in which strategic safety and stability can be positively guaranteed is by taking nuclear weapons systems off hairtrigger alert as recommended by the Canberra Commission, and by subsequent resolutions of the United Nations.

US Secretary of Defence's statement in Moscow, that de-alerting was 'off the table' is therefore deeply concerning. We are however somewhat reassured by your own statement in your reply to us that 'the questions of removing from the Military duty of Russian and American nuclear armaments which you mention in your appeal may become the matter for discussion between the two countries in the context of negotiations on further limitation of the strategic nuclear weapons'.

We will do all we can to persuade both your countries to ensure global stability over the Y2K rollover period by standing down nuclear forces before the date change. We note that the UK, by moving its 'notice to fire' from minutes to days, has made the necessary move, and we urge you and the US to do likewise.


John Hallam,
Nuclear Campaigner, Friends of the Earth.
ph61-2-9517-3903 fax 61-2-9517-3902


(2) John Hallam, FOE Sydney, FAX CAMPAIGN (#2 OF 2):


Date: Sun, 31 Oct 1999 17:53:59 +1000
From: FoE Sydney - Nuclear Campaign

John Hallam
Friends of the Earth Sydney,
17 Lord street, Newtown, NSW, Australia,
Fax(61)(2)9517-3902 ph (61)(2)9517-3903


It asks US Defence Secy Cohen to take nuclear weapons off alert over the y2K rollover period. If you think it's insane to have 2,000 US warheads (and 3.600 Russian ones) capable of being launched over 20 minutes, over the Y2K rollover, let secretary Cohen know.

If you want to sign on to a similar letter to Yeltsin and Sergeyev, please sign the existing Yeltsin/Clinton sign on, on

A global fax campaign will commence (or re-commence - one already exists) on November 7.

My apologies for the inevitable double-postings.


+1-202-456-2461, +1-202-456-2883.


Dear President Clinton and Secretary for Defence Cohen,
I am writing to urge your administration to take US nuclear forces off 'hairtrigger alert' even if only during the Y2K rollover period.

It is particularly disturbing that you are reported as having stated in Moscow that de-alerting of nuclear forces is 'off the table' as a stability building measure. You have also been quoted as saying that 'The better course is reduction, limiting the number of weapons, and establishing shared early warning centers'.

These measures are not in competition with each other. All of them - reductions in the number of weapons, the establishment of shared early warning centers and de-alerting - are equally vital to the reduction of tension and the establishment of strategic stability.

This is particularly the case in view of the uncertainties posed by the millennium date change (Y2K).

As you are well aware, the largest and oldest computer system complexes in the world are those that control nuclear weapons systems.

We are well aware that the chief of Stratcom, Admiral Mies has said in congressional testimony in April and July 1999 that the defence department is well advanced in terms of its Y2K-remediation program.

The Y2K problem is such that it is just not possible to be as certain as Mies is in his testimony. This is because very nature of this kind of problem prohibits you from being certain that every possible programming glitch is truly fixed. In fact no - one will be completely certain until the real date change itself, and indeed until well into the new year.

And even if you are able to convincingly prove that US strategic nuclear computer systems are truly Y2K compliant and that they are 'fail safe', you will be well aware of the great concern that has been voiced over the Y2K readiness of Russia.

Russia has, until recently, made little effort to even acknowledge the Y2K problem, let alone fix it. It is therefore quite possible that Russian computerized control systems are not Y2K compliant and that they will experience widespread failures during the Y2K rollover period.

Even more disquieting is the fact that that the Russians have constructed the system known as 'Perimeter', or the 'dead hand'.

Perimiter seems to offer additional pathways by which Y2K -related command and control failures could lead to an accidental launch of missiles, possibly by Y2K - related failures in sensors combined with system blackout fooling the system into thinking that an attack had taken place.

The establishment of a Y2K strategic stability center in Colorado is certainly an advantageous move and an absolutely essential one.

However, it does not entirely remove the danger of an accidental launch of nuclear weapons.

The fact that the Center is scheduled, as far as the public is aware, to come into operation only on December 27th, four days prior to the rollover, is itself far from reassuring. A four day delay will render it useless.

Similarly, the center itself will depend on the availability of ultra-reliable hotlines between it and Moscow. The recently admitted Y2K vulnerabilities discovered, according to Reuters reports of congressional testimony, in six of the seven hotlines established during the cold war period are also cause for deep concern.

If nuclear weapons are removed from a status in which they can be launched within minutes, and placed in one which would require at least days to launch, the risk of an accidental missile launch induced by Y2K or other errors in command and control systems will be virtually eliminated.

This has been done by the UK, which has moved the 'notice to fire' for its missile forces from minutes to days.

De-alerting of nuclear forces was strongly recommended by the Canberra Commission in 1996 as a way to develop strategic stability and build trust between the US and Russia. It has also been incorporated into last year's and this years text of the New Agenda Resolution in the UN General Assembly. In addition it has been the subject of two resolutions passed by the Australian Senate on 12 August and 20September.

(Text of these resolutions has been passed on to you by the deputy president of our Senate, Senator Sue West.)

Mr. Clinton and Mr. Cohen, we believe that in taking De-alerting 'off the table', the United States is making a serious error. We believe that failure to take nuclear forces off hairtrigger alert over the Y2K 'rollover' period is an error that has the potential of causing unthinkable consequences.

The probability of this may be low but it will never be zero as long as nuclear forces remain on hair-trigger alert.

In a letter in response to a sign on letter from over 270 (now 460) NGOs, Russian Foreign Minister Ivanov said that: "The questions of removing from the military duty of Russian and American nuclear armaments which you mention in your appeal may become the matter for discussion between the two countries in the context of negotiations on further limitation of the strategic nuclear weapons"

This hardly indicates that De-alerting is 'off the table' as far as the Russian Government is concerned. It should be very much on the table as far as your administration is concerned.

(Text of the Russian reply with english translation to our letter is enclosed [note: not included in email we received -- rdh]).

In a previous administration, President Bush took strategic bomber forces off alert. We urge you to do this with all US nuclear forces.

John Hallam, Nuclear Campaigner, Friends of the Earth Sydney.
Ak Malten, Global Anti-Nuclear Alliance, The Hague,
Tom Mc Donald, British-American Security Information Council,(BASIC) London,
Marion Hancock, Aotearoa Peace Foundation, Auckland, NZ.,
Alice Slater, Global Resource and Action Centre for the Environment, NY.,
Ellen Thomas, Proposition-1 Committee, Washington DC.,
Marylia Kelley, Executive Director, Tri -Valley CAREs, (Communities Against
a Radioactive Environment), Livermore, CA,
Laurie grossman, Y2K-WASH,(World Atomic Safety Holiday) San Francisco,
Carah Ong, Abolition 2000 Coordinator,


(3) Religious leaders pretend there ain't no "demon hot atom" -- to the world's peril:

Recently, it has become clear that religious organizations nationwide have failed to keep the public informed about the dangers we face. Blindly, like lambs to the (cancerous) slaughter, they have let the world become a hellish pool of nuclear waste. Come Y2K, a great deal more poison might be poured into the communal nuclear dump we call home. -- rdh


At 09:17 AM 11/1/99 -0700, NHNE wrote: -----

Evangelicals Temper Y2K Rhetoric
Backlash develops against dire warnings from conservatives
By Ira Rifkin

RELIGION NEWS SERVICE Oct. 29 As 1998 drew to a close and the nation suddenly became awash in predictions of possible Year 2000 computer meltdowns, nowhere was the doom and gloom more prevalent than among conservative Christians.


"There has been heavy pressure on everybody to back off. It's coming from a consensus that has emerged that says the real problem here is not from technology but the possibility of panic."

RICHARD LANDES, Center for Millennial Studies


RADIO AND TELEVISION programs, Web sites and book publishers catering to evangelical and Pentecostal Christians warned the faithful to spend 1999 preparing for the widespread societal collapse predicted to follow the crash of millions of time-sensitive computers unable to differentiate between Jan. 1, 2000 and Jan. 1, 1900 the so-called Y2K millennium bug.


Believers were urged to stock up on dried food, water and even weapons to help their families survive. High-profile leaders gave impetus to the fears by voicing their own concerns and linking them to the apocalyptic scenario recounted in the New Testament's Book of Revelation.

Books by Christian writers Michael S. Hyatt, author of "The Millennium Bug," and Shaunti Christine Feldhahn, who wrote "Y2K: The Millennium Bug," sold in the hundreds of thousands.

The Rev. Jerry Falwell said "we do not have enough programmers" to fix the problem and pronounced Y2K "God's instrument to shake this nation" and turn stunned unbelievers toward the Christian message. The Rev. D. James Kennedy told his national television audience that because of Y2K "people will be open to hear the gospel as they have never been before."


As the appointed hour rapidly approaches, however, many of these same voices have now traded fundamentalist conviction about the near certainty of global disruption for agnostic equivocation about the millennium bug's real impact. Instead of the Bible, they've taken to quoting government and industry assurances of Y2K readiness.

[... etc...]


Note: We previously complained about Michael Hyatt's writing regarding Y2K in newsletter #196. -- rdh

----- MY RESPONSE: -----


Scary report you've sent out [shown above]!

The way these religious prognosticators talk, you'd think they actually care one way or the other what happens, but they don't -- they see it all as "God's will" but in reality, WE CAN CHANGE THINGS.

We can make the world a safer place, even in these last few weeks before Y2K. However, we will not do so not by failing to face the real dangers. "Meltdown", as applied in the article shown below, isn't talking about a real "meltdown" at a nuclear power facility, but THAT is what the world should be worrying about. That, and the possibilities of accidental nuclear war. The government is not doing nearly enough to protect the people.

All these religious leaders cited in the article could advocate that the Government be taking the positive, forthright steps necessary, but instead they advocate we all sit back now and let the nuclear "demon hot atom" do what it will. Mustn't panic the populace! But there is really only one righteous thing to do right now: Advocate that we de-alert and dismantle the nuclear missiles (so they cannot be accidentally fired), and shut down the nuclear power plants (to allow them to cool). Chemical plants large and small must be ordered to be shut down as well.

A UNIVERSAL HOLIDAY should be declared, so that people everywhere can prepare their families and themselves for the possible coming strife. Airlines should be shut down. Maybe Boeing planes have a problem, anyway -- yet another one, a relatively young 767 (just 8 years old), just fell from the sky, killing 217 people. Good thing it didn't land on a nuke plant!

Signs from God? Maybe. But certainly, the statistical certainty that Y2K will be a major disruption is scientific. Those that play with people's minds, by either branding the wrong things the "major worries", or by proclaiming there are no major worries, are the real danger to society today.

May God help us all.


Russell Hoffman
Peace Activist
Carlsbad, CA

----- END OF MY RESPONSE -----

(4) Another Useless United Nations Resolution? Unfortunately, yes:

File this one under "groups who talk a lot, but do little". The following U.N. Space Resolution from 20 countries slows down nothing, stops nothing, defines nothing, means nothing and accomplishes less than nothing because it permits, instead of prohibits, dangerous uses of space.

The authors should NOT be proud of themselves if they wish to think they serve humanity. They should NOT believe their own dreams that this document will protect them from future threats like Cassini, Russia's Mars '96 (Russia is one of the sponsors of the resolution). It will not even protect anyone from space-based weapons, guidance systems, observation platforms, or anything else. -- rdh


From: Hans Karow
To: "''"
Subject: FW: U.N. Space Resolution
Date: Wed, 27 Oct 1999 10:36:01 -0700


Fifty-fourth session
First Committee
22 October 1999

Introduced by: Algeria, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussaiam, Chile, China, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Egypt, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Sri Lanka and Sudan:


The General Assembly,

Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,

Reaffirming the will of all States that the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be for peaceful purposes and shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interest of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development,

Reaffirming also the provisions of articles III and IV of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,

Recalling the obligation of all States to observe the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations regarding the use or threat of use of force in their international relations, including in their space activities,

Reaffirming paragraph 80 of the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly, in which it is stated that in order to prevent an arms race in outer space further measures should be taken and appropriate international negotiations held in accordance with the spirit of the Treaty,

Recalling its previous resolutions on this issue, and taking note of the proposals submitted to the General Assembly at its tenth special session and its regular sessions, and of the recommendations made to the competent organs of the United Nations and to the Conference on Disarmament,

Recognizing that prevention of an arms race in outer space would avert a grave danger for international peace and security,

Emphasizing the paramount importance of strict compliance with existing arms limitation and disarmament agreements relevant to outer space, including bilateral agreements, and with the existing legal regime concerning the use of outer space,

Considering that wide participation in the legal regime applicable to outer space could contribute to enhancing its effectiveness.

Noting that the Ad Hoc Committee on the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space, taking into account its previous efforts since its establishment in 1985 and seeking to enhance its functioning in qualitative terms, continued the examination and identification of various issues, existing agreements and existing proposals, as well as future initiative relevant to the prevention of an arms race in outer space, and that this contributed to a better understanding of a number of problems and to a clearer perception of the various positions.

Noting also that there were no objections in principle in the Conference on Disarmament to the re-establishment of the Ad Hoc Committee, subject to re-examination of the mandate contained in the decision of the Conference on Disarmament of 13 February 1992,

Emphasizing the mutually complementary nature of bilateral and multilateral efforts in the field of preventing an arms race in outer space, and hoping that concrete results will emerge from those efforts as soon as possible,

Convinced that further measures should be examined in the search for effective and verifiable bilateral and multilateral agreements in order to prevent an arms race in outer space, including the weaponization of outer space,

Stressing that the growing use of outer space increases the need for greater transparency and better information on the part of the international community,

Recalling in this context its previous resolutions, in particular resolutions 45/55 B of 4 December 1990, 47/51 of 9 December 1992 and 48/74 A of 16 December 1993, in which, inter alia, it reaffirmed the importance of confidence-building measures as means conducive to ensuring the attainment of the objective of the prevention of an arms race in outer space,

Conscious of the benefits of confidence-and security-building measures in the military field,

Recognizing that negotiations for the conclusion of an international agreement or agreements to prevent an arms race in outer space remain a priority task of the Ad Hoc Committee and that the concrete proposals on confidence-building measures could form an integral part of such agreements,

1) Reaffirms the importance and urgency of preventing an arms race in outer space, and the readiness of all States to contribute to that common objective, in conformity with the provisions of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies;

2) Reaffirms its recognition, as stated in the report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space, that the legal regime applicable to outer space by itself does not guarantee the prevention of an arms race in outer space, that this legal regime plays a significant role in the prevention of an arms race in that environment, that there is a need to consolidate and reinforce that regime and enhance its effectiveness, and that it is important to comply strictly with existing agreements, both bilateral and multilateral;

3) Emphasizes the necessity of further measures with appropriate and effective provisions for verification to prevent an arms race in outer space;

4) Calls upon all States, in particular those with major space capabilities, to contribute actively to the objective of the peaceful use of outer space and of the prevention of an arms race in outer space and to refrain from actions contrary to that objective and to the relevant existing treaties in the interest of maintaining international peace and security and promoting international cooperation;

5) Reiterates that the Conference on Disarmament, as the single multilateral disarmament negotiating forum, has the primary role in the negotiation of a multilateral agreement or agreements, as appropriate, on the prevention of an arms race in outer space in all its aspects;

6) Invites the Conference on Disarmament to complete the examination and updating of the mandate contained in its decision of 13 February 1992 and to establish an ad hoc committee at the earliest during the 2000 session of the Conference on Disarmament;

7) Recognizes, in this respect, the growing convergence of views on the elaboration of measures designed to strengthen transparency, confidence and security in the peaceful uses of outer space;

8) Urges States conducting activities in outer space, as well as States interested in conducting such activities, to keep the Conference on Disarmament informed of the progress of bilateral and multilateral negotiations on the matter, if any, so as to facilitate its work;

9) Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fifty-fifth session the item entitled "Prevention of an arms race in outer space".


With proclamations like this, the world fools itself into thinking it has a handle on the situation. In fact this document is inexact, and by being inexact, it actually permits the very things is it supposed to protect us from. Worse, it is written as though this were not all happening now, as we speak. Nuclear nightmares continue, because this document does not discuss the environmental damage from space ventures. Until those issues are clearly resolved to the exact Curie (.001 Curies of plutonium becoming the maximum permitted amount in one mission, for example), nothing has really been said. The activists have gotten the run-around again.

I bet the major countries that wrote this useless document, did so not to prohibit U.S. space ventures, nor to prohibit their own space ventures, but rather, to permit them! It appears to be an attack on the U. S. policy, simply by nature of the fact that we were not party to it, but really, why should we care if such a weak and paltry statement is made? It won't stop China, Russia, or anyone else who signed it from doing anything; why should it stop us?

A real agreement would recognize the horrible environmental degradation which has already occurred from space madness to date and it would set absolute, quantifiable limits for permissible quantities of pestilence which can be sent into space, and it would do all this unilaterally for the sake of the most precious spaceship of all -- Earth.

-- rdh

(5) United States Government official contact points:

NASA needs to be told in no uncertain terms they have lied too often to the public and we want a SEA CHANGE away from their nuclear policies!

To learn about the absurd excuses NASA used to launch Cassini and its 72.3 pounds of plutonium in 1997, ask them for the 1995 Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, and all subsequent documentation. At the same time, be sure to ask them for ANY and ALL documentation available on future uses of plutonium in space, including MILITARY, CIVILIAN, or "OTHER" (just in case they make a new category somehow!). To get this information, contact:

Cassini Public Information
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena CA 91109
(818) 354-5011 or
(818) 354-6478

Here's NASA's "comments" email address:

Daniel Goldin is the head of NASA. Here's his email address:

Here's the NASA URL to find additional addresses to submit written questions to:


NASA should never have been allowed to launch monstrosities like Cassini and Galileo (which recently suffered a nine-hour "lost in space" anomoly (NASA calls it "safe mode" which is the opposite of what it really is) just before it did a flyby of Io), but the next breed -- such as Europa Orbiter and Pluto-Kuiper Express are not much better and the policy is being set for greatly increased rates of missions! The danger continues! To complain to NASA about their future nuclear space probes, here are two addresses you can use:

For Europa Orbiter:
Europa Orbiter comments"

For Pluto-Kuiper Express:
"Pluto-Kuiper Express comments"

Be sure to "cc" the president and VP and your senators and congresspeople, too.

President Bill Clinton
White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20500
Phone -- (202) 456-1111
Fax -- (202) 456-2461
e-mail --

Vice President Albert Gore
White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Ave.,
N.W.,Washington, D.C. 20500
Phone -- (202) 456-1414
Fax -- (202) 456-2461
e-mail --

Secretary William Cohen
1000 Defense
The Pentagon
Washington D.C. 20301
Phone -- (703) 695-6352

Secretary Bill Richardson
Department of Energy (DoE)
1000 Independence Avenue SW
Washington D.C. 20585
Phone -- (202) 586-6210
fax -- (202) 586-4403

Always include your full name and postal address in all correspondence to any Government official of any country, because otherwise they will throw it out unread, or hand it directly to their police force to try to identify the author. (Thus, nothing good will come of it.) Also, ALWAYS include a personal message of some sort, indicating YOUR OWN VIEWS, even if you include a lot of material written by other people (me, for instance).

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(7) Authorship notes and associated links:


Many of the issues presented by Russell Hoffman in this letter are based on conversations with Dr. John W. Gofman (who isolated the first working quantities of plutonium), the late Dr. Karl Z. Morgan (who was known as the "father of health physics"), Dr. Ernest Sternglass (who has done statistical studies about LLR), Dr. Jay Gould (ditto), Dr. Horst Poehler, Dr. Helen Caldicott, Dr. Ross Wilcock and dozens of activists, as well as many others on both sides of the nuclear debates, including ex military nuke expert Jack Shannon (responsible for the design of the D2G Navy reactor, the most widely used reactor in the U. S. navy), award-winning investigative reporter Karl Grossman, ecologist and human rights advocate Pamela Blockey-O'Brien, etc. Also, I've read a few dozen books on the various subjects. And scads of government documents purporting to explain how something so dangerous can be safe. Professionally, my pump training software is used throughout the pump industry and even in some nuclear power plants around the world to train their staff about mechanical pumps. Any errors herein are regrettably my own, but I believe it would take an extremely unlikely preponderance of errors to invalidate my basic position on these issues.

Russell D. Hoffman, Carlsbad, California, Peace Activist, Environmentalist, High Tech Guru:

Hoffman's Y2K Preparedness Information:

Learn about The Effects of Nuclear War here:

** Russell D. Hoffman, Owner and Chief Programmer
** Carlsbad CA
** Visit the world's most eclectic web site:

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